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I4O                   CUSCUS   AND   TRUE   PHALANGERS                  CHAP.

caecum extraordinarily long; stomach with a cardiac gland ; liver
complicated by additional furrows, without a free caudate lobe -
no azygos lobe to lungs; vaginal culs-de-sac free.

The third sub-family, PHASCOLOMYINAB, contrasts with the
others as follows :—Tail rudimentary ; cheek-pouches present, but
rudimentary; one incisor on each side above, but no additional
premolars ; all the teeth rootless; caecum, not peculiar in shape;
stomach with a cardiac gland; liver complicated by secondary
furrows, without a free caudate lobe; lung with an azygos lobe;
vaginal culs-de-sac free.

The last sub-family, TARSIPEDINAE, is thus defined:—Tail
long; tongue extensile; only one premolar; molars reduced:
caecum absent,

Sub-Fam. 1. Phalangerinae.—The genus Phcdanger embraces
five species, sometimes called by the generic name of Ci/sous. They

Fiou 69. —Vulpine Phalanger.     Tncfiosurus viupewua*,     x |j>.

are largish animals with short ears ; only the end of the tail
is naked. Of these animals only one species is found in Australia
itself, the rest inhabiting the islands lying to the north. The
Spotted Casciis, Ph. maculatus, is in spite of its vegetarian diet,
and perhaps on account of its spots, spoken of as the " Tiger
Cat/? Mr. Aflalo remarks of it that though provided with a
prehensile tail, it is little better as a climber than the tailless
Trichmurus, including the ** True Phalangers," includes largish
species, which can be distinguished from the last genus by a
chest-gland similar to that which occurs in Myrmezobius and
some other Marsupials of the present group. There are but
two species, which are purely Australian. The " Brush-tailed
Opossum," T. vwlpeeula (perhaps better known as Ph/*l<**f****<*-